Et al.

A note about citations:  In my blog, you will see many sentences that end like this (Herron et al., 2009).  The parenthetical citation using the last name of the author(s) and the date is a standard in scholarly writing; the phrase “et al” is short for the Latin “et alia” meaning “and others,” implying that the reference had more than two authors.  When you see a citation, it does not mean I am quoting; it means that I made a claim or I am paraphrasing another author(s) and I am offering a reference where you can find the original source.  If you see a statement in “quotes” followed by the author(s) and date–“scientists, unlike zealots, can’t afford to become arrogant about what they accept as true” (Coyne, 2009, p.16)–here I am intentionally copying text from a passage authored by someone else but either way you will see this at the end of the essay:


Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Penguin.

Herron, M. E., Shofer, F. S., & Reisner, I. R. (2009). Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 117(1-2), 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.12.011

It can seem awkward for some, however one of the primary reasons I prefer it over numbered footnotes is because numbers are easier to gloss over and once you get used to them it is no more cumbersome than “etc.”.  I am also shocked at the general lack of citation usage in writing about dog training (which in case you are curious, qualifies for paraphrasing plagiarism–see:  I strongly believe that both the rampant amount of paraphrasing plagiarism–seen even from PhDs in animal behavior on popular blogs–as well as the inability to determine the source or significance of an idea, significantly contributes to why dog training is about 50 years behind modern animal behavior science.  I want readers to know the author of the reference supporting my claim immediately.  It is transparent and I only care about science–an art that has shaped the evolution of animal welfare.